Recommended Integrated Pest Management and Cultural Practices

Contact VCE at 703 228-6414 for more information.

Another member of the summer defoliator group is the red- humped caterpillar. A long list of host plants including hickory, dogwood, apple, and rose are attacked by this pest.

A long list of host plants including hickory, dogwood, apple, and roses are attacked by the red- humped caterpillar.

Insect control:

Most insects are benign or beneficial to gardeners. They are important to pollination, improve soil conditions, destroy various weeds, and prey on harmful insects in the garden.

  • Insect traps, baits, repellents and biological controls can be very effective when used properly after an accurate assessment of harmful insects.
  • Take advantage of natural predators, parasites, and pathogens that are already in your garden–encourage spiders, toads, and dragonflies.
  • Learn to recognize eggs and larvae of beneficial insects, including parasites and egg cases.

For more information and images on the web, see the  Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show).

Plant selection:

  • Choose plants that are suited to climate and soil, are disease-free or disease or insect resistant.
  • Select only sturdy plants with well-developed root systems, and buy from reputable growers.
  • Avoid cuts, bruises, cracks, and insect damage, which are prime sites for infection.

Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2019Always use with great caution. Only use on affected areas of plant and follow label instructions. Failure to do so can:

  • make food less safe to eat;
  • harm and kill beneficial insects, worms, and birds;
  • pose serious danger to people and animals from exposure or inhalation; and
  • leach into and contaminate groundwater; and induce resistance in pests.

VCE can suggest appropriate cultural or biological controls to try first and, if necessary, can advise the correct pesticide and its proper application. See the Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2019.


Water less often but more deeply to improve root growth. VCE recommends 1 inch per week, which wets dry soil 5-6 inches deep.

  • Water in the morning so plants can dry out, preventing many fungal diseases.
  • Use a drip or soaker irrigation system, if possible, to keep foliage dry.
  • For plants susceptible to fungi (e.g. tomatoes and roses), leave extra space between plants for good airflow.
  • Orient plantings so winds help foliage dry quickly.
  • Stay out of the garden while it is wet to prevent soil compaction as well as the spread of disease on shoes.


  • Remove diseased/infected plant material immediately to prevent spread.
  • Clean up & remove garden refuse that may act as over-wintering sites for pests and diseases, to drastically reduce the chance of re-infection.


  • Make use of three (if not four) seasons by selecting plants to provide color all season long.
  • Know your plants – by choosing the proper plant for proper location in garden you will have healthier plants and spend less money replacing them.
  • Diagram plant locations or use plant tags to help you remember.

Weed control:

Grass or grass like weedsWeeds often harbor pests and compete for nutrients and water.

  • Handpick or dig specific weeds and use spot application of Virginia Tech recommended weed control products as appropriate.
  • Identify weeds before acting.  The Virginia Tech Weed Identification site has key identification characteristics of common and not-so-common turfgrass weeds. Additionally, these University of Maryland sites have excellent information: Problem – Weeds  and Lawn Weed ID and Management.
  • If needed, bring a sample into one of our plant clinics or the Help Desk for identification.


To start a compost pile, use a good base (12″ high) or build on a pallet for airflow and drainage;

  • The ideal ratio of carbon to nitrogen is 30:1, however roughly 50% carbon or brown matter to 50% nitrogen or green matter is easier to remember;
  • Make the top concave to collect rainwater;
  • Turn at least once a month to promote microbial activity that will increase decomposition; and
  • Do not add dog or cat feces, diseased plant matter, tomato vines, weed seeds or animal foodstuffs.

For more information see Backyard Composting  (VCE Publication HORT-49) and Compost: What Is It and What’s It To You  (VCE Publication 452-231).

Soil improvement:

  • Maintain slightly acidic soil (pH 6.5);
  • Get soil tested every 3 years;
  • Add organic matter to the soil; and
  • Minimize the use of nonorganic chemicals and fertilizers.

For more information see Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener (VCE Publication publication 452-129).

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