Sources and References

The following sources provided invaluable information in the preparation of the MGNV Tried and True Native Plant Selections for the Mid-Atlantic fact sheets:

Plant Distribution, Habitat or Status

McAvoy, W.A. 2013. The Flora of Delaware Online Database. Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Smyrna, Delaware.

The Pennsylvania Flora Project of Morris Arboretum, University of Pennsylvania.

USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (, 10 October 2014). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Virginia Botanical Associates. (2014 and 2015). Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora ( c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg.

Plant Identification and Information

Auburn University Plant Identification Resource, Horticulture Department.

Illinois Wildflowers, © 2002-2012 by John Hilty.

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Database, The University of Texas at Austin.

Minnesota Wildflowers.

Missouri Botanical Garden PlantFinder.

Plants. North Carolina Cooperative Extension.

Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker. 2003. Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, Annapolis, MD. 82 pp.

Tilton, George Henry. release 2004. The Fern Lover’s Companion: A Guide for the Northeastern States and Canada.

UConn Plant Database of Trees, Shrubs and Vines, University of Connecticut, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources © Copyright Mark Brand, 1997-2014.

USDA Agricultural Research Service, Plant Hardiness Zone Map.

USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (, 10 October 2014). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Virginia Tech Dendrology Factsheets. Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation.

Plant Special Uses and Concerns


Deer Tolerant/Resistant Native Plants. 2002. Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve, New Hope, Pennsylvania.

Glen, Charlotte. Deer Resistant Plants, Urban Horticulture Fact Sheet 15. North Carolina Cooperative Extension, Pender County.

Kays, Jonathan S., Lisa Curtis, and Michael V. Bartlett. Resistance of Ornamentals to Deer Damage, Fact Sheet 655. Maryland Cooperative Extension.

Deer Resistant Ornamentals. [also revised by John W. Jett. West Virginia University Extension.]

Landscape Plants Rated by Deer Resistance. Rutgers, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.

Rawinski, Thomas J. 2008. Impacts of White-Tailed Deer Overabundance in Forest Ecosystems: An Overview. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Forest Service, USDA.

Whitacre, Carrie.  Deer “Resistant” Shrubs and Trees (both native and non native species to Virginia). The State Arboretum of Virginia.


Free, Mary. 2013. For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats, HORT-59NP (HORT-74NP). Virginia Cooperative Extension.

Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2012. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Data set accessed 2014 and 2015 at

Sarver, Matthew J., ed. 2007. Delaware Native Plants for Native Bees. Dover, DE: USDA NRCS and Delaware Department of Agriculture.


Soil Texture – Physical Properties. The Missouri Cooperative Soil Survey. (Note: This publication is not currently available electronically. As a substitute refer to: Soil Science, Lesson 4: Soil Texture.  Missouri Career Education. 

Toxicity and Ethnobotanic and Medicinal Uses

Baskauf, Steve. Bioimages: Some poisonous plants of Tennessee. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

Filmer, Ann King. 2012. Safe and Poisonous Garden Plants. University of California, Davis.

Sam W. Hitt. Medicinal Plant Gardens. UNC Health Sciences Library.

USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (, 10 October 2014). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.


Andruczyk, Mike, Lynnette Swanson, Laurie Fox, Susan French, and Traci Gilland. Rain Garden Plants, Publication 426-043. Virginia Cooperative Extension.

Kick the Invasive Exotic Gardening Habit with Great Native Plant Alternatives, The United States National Arboretum.

Meyer, Mery, Deb Brown, and Mike Zins. ed. 2007. The Best Plants for 30 Tough Sites. University of Minnesota.

Swearingen, J., B. Slattery, K. Reshetiloff, and S. Zwicker. 2010. Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, 4th ed. National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, DC. 168pp.