Sources and References

The following sources provided invaluable information in the preparation of the MGNV Tried and True Native Plant Selections for the Mid-Atlantic fact sheets:

Plant Distribution, Habitat or Status

McAvoy, W.A. 2013. The Flora of Delaware Online Database. Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Smyrna, Delaware. http://www.wra.udel.edu/de-flora/Introduction/

The Pennsylvania Flora Project of Morris Arboretum, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.paflora.org

USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 10 October 2014). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Virginia Botanical Associates. (2014 and 2015). Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg.

Plant Identification and Information

Auburn University Plant Identification Resource, Horticulture Department. http://www.ag.auburn.edu/hort/landscape/

Illinois Wildflowers, © 2002-2012 by John Hilty. http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/index.htm

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Database, The University of Texas at Austin. http://www.wildflower.org/plants/

Missouri Botanical Garden PlantFinder.
http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Plants. North Carolina Cooperative Extension. http://plants.ces.ncsu.edu

Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker. 2003. Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, Annapolis, MD. 82 pp. http://www.nps.gov/plants/pubs/chesapeake/pdf/chesapeakenatives.pdf

Tilton, George Henry. release 2004. The Fern Lover’s Companion: A Guide for the Northeastern States and Canada. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11365?msg=welcome_stranger

UConn Plant Database of Trees, Shrubs and Vines, University of Connecticut, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources © Copyright Mark Brand, 1997-2014. http://hort.uconn.edu/index.php

USDA Agricultural Research Service, Plant Hardiness Zone Map. http://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/PHZMWeb/

USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 10 October 2014). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Virginia Tech Dendrology Factsheets. Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation. http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/factsheets.cfm

Plant Special Uses and Concerns

Deer

Deer Tolerant/Resistant Native Plants. 2002. Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve, New Hope, Pennsylvania. http://www.bhwp.org/cms/files/file_ID96121.pdf

Glen, Charlotte. Deer Resistant Plants, Urban Horticulture Fact Sheet 15. North Carolina Cooperative Extension, Pender County. http://carteret.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Deer-Resistant-Plants2.pdf

Kays, Jonathan S., Lisa Curtis, and Michael V. Bartlett. Resistance of Ornamentals to Deer Damage, Fact Sheet 655. Maryland Cooperative Extension.

Deer Resistant Ornamentals.
http://anr.ext.wvu.edu/lawn_garden/plants/deer_resistant_ornamentals [also revised by John W. Jett. West Virginia University Extension. http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/treeshru/resistan.htm]

Landscape Plants Rated by Deer Resistance. Rutgers, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. http://njaes.rutgers.edu/deerresistance/

Rawinski, Thomas J. 2008. Impacts of White-Tailed Deer Overabundance in Forest Ecosystems: An Overview. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Forest Service, USDA. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/special_interests/white_tailed_deer.pdf

Whitacre, Carrie.  Deer “Resistant” Shrubs and Trees (both native and non native species to Virginia). The State Arboretum of Virginia.  http://blandy.virginia.edu/arboretum/deer-resistant-plants

Pollinators

Free, Mary. 2013. For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats, HORT-59NP (HORT-74NP). Virginia Cooperative Extension. http://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/HORT/HORT-59/HORT-59.html

Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2012. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Data set accessed 2014 and 2015 at http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/.

Sarver, Matthew J., ed. 2007. Delaware Native Plants for Native Bees. Dover, DE: USDA NRCS and Delaware Department of Agriculture. http://dda.delaware.gov/plantind/forms/publications/Delaware%20Native%20Plants%20for%20Native%20Bees.pdf

Soil

Soil Texture – Physical Properties. The Missouri Cooperative Soil Survey. (Note: This publication is not currently available electronically. As a substitute refer to: Soil Science, Lesson 4: Soil Texture.  Missouri Career Education. http://www.missouricareereducation.org/doc/soilsci/SRLesson4.pdf 

Toxicity and Ethnobotanic and Medicinal Uses

Baskauf, Steve. Bioimages: Some poisonous plants of Tennessee. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/pages/poisonous-plants.htm

Filmer, Ann King. 2012. Safe and Poisonous Garden Plants. University of California, Davis.  http://ucanr.edu/sites/poisonous_safe_plants/

Sam W. Hitt. Medicinal Plant Gardens. UNC Health Sciences Library. http://hsl.lib.unc.edu/medicinalgarden

USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 10 October 2014). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Other

Andruczyk, Mike, Lynnette Swanson, Laurie Fox, Susan French, and Traci Gilland. Rain Garden Plants, Publication 426-043. Virginia Cooperative Extension. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-043/426-043_pdf.pdf

Kick the Invasive Exotic Gardening Habit with Great Native Plant Alternatives, The United States National Arboretum. http://www.usna.usda.gov/Gardens/faqs/InvasivesAlternatives.html

Meyer, Mery, Deb Brown, and Mike Zins. ed. 2007. The Best Plants for 30 Tough Sites. University of Minnesota. http://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/yard-garden/landscaping/best-plants-for-tough-sites/

Swearingen, J., B. Slattery, K. Reshetiloff, and S. Zwicker. 2010. Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, 4th ed. National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, DC. 168pp. http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEn/pubs/midatlantic/index.htm